Using Driving Lanes
Using Driving Lanes

Driving Rules for Using Lanes: Choosing The Right Lane & Merging

Updated Dec. 14, 2020

You know what driving lanes are, but do you know how to use them correctly? There is far more to using driving lanes than simply keeping yourself within the road markings that separate one row of traffic from another. Which lane you should occupy and how you should drive within that lane depend on your speed, direction of travel, whether you intend to turn and a whole host of other factors.

Many rural roads have just one lane traveling in either direction, while roads in more densely populated areas have more. The number of lanes a road has is generally dictated by the volume of traffic passing through that area at any one time. All drivers will eventually need to navigate a multi-lane road, even those living in the most rural of areas.

Occupying the correct lane is relatively straight forward when traveling on a familiar road, though it can be confusing on highways and large intersections you have not driven through previously. Take the Katy freeway in Texas as an example – how would you choose which of its 26 lanes to drive in? It is not as difficult as you may think. Keep reading to learn how driving lanes work.

A multitude of driving lanes on a highwayWhile twenty six lanes on the road is an exceptional scenario, it is not uncommon for highways to have five or more driving lanes going in the same direction of travel.

Choosing the right lane

Choosing the right lane to drive in on a highway is important. Make the wrong choice and you will substantially increase your chances of being involved in a traffic accident. You may be fortunate enough to avoid a collision despite using highway lanes incorrectly, though – depending on the severity of the mistake – you will annoy other drivers and may even land yourself a traffic ticket.

Generally, the best choice on the highway is to remain in the right-hand lane unless you wish to overtake another motorist. The speed at which you should travel in a lane increases with each lane further to the left you go. Some states even have a “keep right” law which prohibits motorists from using the left-hand lane for anything other than overtaking. We will discuss how to choose a driving lane in greater detail.

Changing lanes while driving

There are driving techniques and safety practices that you MUST observe when changing lanes. Your driving examiner will assess your lane-changing skills during the driving test! Changing lanes incorrectly can endanger you and all other road users in the vicinity; it will cost you a pass on the license exam. One of the worst mistakes you can make during the driving test is changing lanes at an intersection. This is not strictly illegal in all states but usually qualifies as a “dangerous lane-change” and as such, will lead to a fail.

As changing lanes is always risky, you should avoid doing it unless the situation demands it. Drivers should always signal their intention to change lanes using their indicators (or hand signals, if indicators are malfunctioning), checking that there is enough space to merge to the new lane using side and rear-view mirrors. You must also look over your shoulder to check your vehicle’s blind spots. Check out our comprehensive changing lanes break-down to find out more.


Merging into a new lane of traffic safely and successfully is a matter of identifying a space large enough to accommodate your vehicle. Most state handbooks recommend looking for a four-second gap between cars. You will also need to judge how quickly the new lane of traffic is moving and adjust your speed to match. To begin with, merging can be stressful. With practice, it will quickly become second nature.

Entering a highway

From the very moment you drive onto the highway entrance ramp, you should begin checking the traffic. Gauge the speed at which other drivers are traveling and identify gaps in the traffic that may allow you to merge. Motorists who are already on the highway have right-of-way, though they will often slow down or move over to allow entering drivers a chance to join. Signal your intention to enter the acceleration lane and increase your speed when you do; by the end of the acceleration lane you should be traveling at the same speed as the traffic in the right-hand lane of the highway.

Look for a four-second gap in the traffic, though be prepared to enter a smaller space if the highway is particularly busy or slow-moving. Do not brake or stop in the acceleration lane – no matter how tempting it may be – as merging will be much harder and will require a larger gap if you are traveling too slowly. Read our full description on safe highway entry to find out more.

Exiting a highway

The key to exiting a highway safely is identifying the exit you will need in advance of your journey. Preparation to leave the highway begins several miles in advance of your exit, when highway guide signs warn you of the approaching turn off. Merge into the appropriate lane on the right or left side of the highway (the position of the exit’s guide sign will give you this information), well in advance of your exit.

The deceleration lane next to the exit ramp should be used to decrease speed. Merge onto this lane observing the proper procedure as soon as possible, to ensure you are left with enough time to slow down. Do not brake before entering the deceleration lane, as you may be rear-ended by another driver remaining on the highway who is traveling at speed. When exiting the highway through a section marked “WEAVE AREA”, you may need to yield right-of-way to other drivers.

Entering the deceleration lane is your point of no return. Never attempt to re-enter the highway from the deceleration lane, as other motorists around you will not anticipate the maneuver. Equally, you must not rush to leave the highway at the last moment if you have missed your exit approaching. Wait until the next exit, as a sudden maneuver on to the deceleration ramp could cause a serious collision. Our “exiting the highway” page discusses these issues in more detail.

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Choosing the Right Lane
Using Driving Lanes 2 of 4

Choosing a Lane

Learning how to use lanes appropriately is essential for any driver who will be using large roads and freeways where there are multiple lanes of traffic moving in the same direction. Incorrect lane usage can endanger all road users, hold up traffic and incur a traffic fine.

Changin Lanes on the Road
Using Driving Lanes 3 of 4

Changing Lanes

New drivers must learn how to change lanes safely and practice the maneuver as often as possible – there is more to it than you think. Changing lanes unsafely endangers you and everybody with whom you are sharing the road! Getting marked down for an unsafe lane change during the driving test will probably cost you your license.

Step-by-Step Instructions to Entering a Highway
Using Driving Lanes 4 of 4

Merging onto A Highway

No matter how thoroughly you mentally prepare yourself for the challenge of driving on the highway, your very first time is going to be stressful. Knowing what you are doing on paper is not the same as being able to execute the advanced maneuvers needed during highway driving. Being around other motorists traveling at speed is intimidating but you will quickly adapt, with regular practice and guidance from your instructor. Let’s find out what you need to know about entering a highway and merging with other traffic safely.

Before You Start Driving 9 of 10

Acceleration Techniques

When you press the gas pedal, more fuel is fed into the engine and the vehicle’s speed increases. New drivers must learn to control their speed with effective acceleration techniques and utilize these skills appropriately on the roads.

Before You Start Driving 10 of 10

Braking Techniques

There a variety of complex techniques involved in slowing down or stopping your vehicle; slamming on the brakes is rarely the best course of action. Remember that you may be able to achieve the desired speed reduction simply by removing your foot from the accelerator; applying the brakes is not always necessary. If you do need to reapply the brakes, do so with a smooth, building pressure.

Signaling 1 of 4


Drivers must communicate with other motorists by all available means, using headlights, stop signals, turn signals, hazard lights, the car’s horn and hand signals. Your situation will determine which communication devices should be used. Hand signals should only be used if other signaling tools – such as turn indicators and brake lights – are malfunctioning. Your knowledge of hand signals will also be assessed during the driving test, so it is essential to master them.

Signaling 2 of 4

Hand Signals for Driving

Most drivers assume that remembering hand signals will only be necessary in the unlikely event that their turn indicators fail, but this is not the case. You will need to recognize other road user’s hand signals far more often than you will need to use them yourself. It is possible that other drivers will use hand signals if their indicators are broken, though you are more likely to encounter cyclists using them.

Signaling 3 of 4

Headlight Flashing

Drivers commonly flash their headlights to attract the attention of other motorists for a variety of reasons. However, most official state driving manuals recommend flashing your headlights only to notify other drivers that their high-beams are on as they approach you from the opposite direction. Leaving your high-beams on can temporarily blind other drivers and cause a collision.

Signaling 4 of 4

Using Your Car Horn

Sounding your car horn is the most effective way to get another road user’s attention. However, it is also the most aggressive means of communication and as such, must be used sparingly. Some drivers use the car horn to express anger and frustration when things on the road do not go their way. Of the all the incorrect reasons to sound your horn, being angry at another road user takes the prize for worst offense.